By Björn Hårsman, John M. Quigley
International comparisons of financial associations and executive poli cies are fraught with problems. After1he selective boundaries of language and tradition are triumph over, changes in courses and results are way more refined than those who should be published by means of hugely aggregated nationwide facts. Rela tively "soft" comparisons are the norm in foreign comparative learn. this can be really actual in comparative analyses of housing and the operation of housing markets. Housing markets are neighborhood or neighborhood in personality, and the results of presidency courses on marketplace results depend on very important monetary features of the neighborhood atmosphere. in addition, the associations that impact the construction, distribution, and intake of housing range vastly throughout international locations. The distribution of housing and the position of the industry in provision rely on historic and social components to boot. combination nationwide info are not likely to permit for far intensity in comparisons throughout societies. but within the absence of such comparisons, the very visibility of housing could lead on to insufficient or faulty generalizations. pictures emphasing the aesthetics of ''well deliberate" housing agglomorations or city slums are compelling. Documen tation that middle-class families needs to wait in a queue for a decade to be housed is significantly much less graphic.
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Overseas comparisons of financial associations and govt poli cies are fraught with problems. After1he selective boundaries of language and tradition are triumph over, adjustments in courses and results are way more sophisticated than those who will be published via hugely aggregated nationwide facts. Rela tively "soft" comparisons are the norm in overseas comparative examine.
Extra info for Housing Markets and Housing Institutions: An International Comparison
The Swedish Housing Market: Development and Institutional Settings 33 Local governments-- the municipalities-- were assigned the responsibility of implementing programs to develop local housing supply, thereby ensuring sufficient and modem housing for the population. In order to accomplish this task, the municipalities were encouraged to create their own local housing associations (nonprofit companies). One of the primary duties of these enterprises was to initiate production of new rental dwellings for particular households (for example, those, with children, who often had difficulty obtaining adequate housing in the private market).
11.... C""' ' .... ' .. to ~ ~ '. ' \ \ '''1''. J , Jl\ , ....... -:' "' .... - IJ. \ .. .. ". ,"'" . X 1/r- , V f::: K "- "'" ; ' .... 1'. I} , ~. - - " , '. ~. " 4 3 1960 1965 - ' - ' - ' Flflland - - - Hungarf -Auslria ••• •• •••••• Uniled Kingdom 1970 year 1975 ". '. 1980 18 HOUSING MARKETS AND HOUSING INSTITUTIONS TABLE 1-5 Comparative Demographic Characteristics, 1970 -1980. 5 -- Not available. Survey of participating research groups. in 1980 was substantially smaller than in the rest of the country.
A substantial part of the single-family stock is of older vintage and does not necessarily conform to current building standards. 2. Multifamily cooperative buildings: These dwellings are individual flats in multifamily buildings, and are tenant owned. Owners have the same rights as single-family dwelling owners in purchasing and selling these units, except that they are subject to some control by the cooperative association in the areas of repair and renovation. Also, the maintenance of common facilities in these buildings is financed by means of an assessment levied on the tenants by the association.