By Marc H.V. van Regenmortel, Brian W.J. Mahy
This quantity comprises eighty five chapters that spotlight fresh advances in our wisdom of the viruses that infect crops and fungi. It starts off with common themes in plant virology together with move of viruses in vegetation, the transmission of plant viruses through vectors, and the improvement of virus-resistant transgenic vegetation. the second one part offers an summary of the houses of a variety of 20 well-studied plant viruses, 23 plant virus genera and some greater teams of plant viruses. The 3rd part, that is abundantly illustrated, highlights the main economically very important virus illnesses of cereals, legumes, vegetable plants, fruit timber and ornamentals. The final part describes the main teams of viruses that infect fungi.
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This publication addresses the responses of vegetation to salinity. even supposing salinity is a typical environmental issue for marine organisms, for almost all of land crops excessive soil salinity is an environmental constraint that limits progress, productiveness, and basic plant services. Salinity is very common in arid/semiarid climates the place crop creation is determined by irrigation.
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This article integrates microscopy with plant cellphone and molecular biology and is an up-to-date revision of the preferred atlas of micrographs first released in 1975. It contains over four hundred micrographs and four pages of full-color plates.
Extra info for Desk Encyclopedia of Plant and Fungal Virology
C The length of time during which the virus remains infectious within its vector, after acquisition. d The length of time required for a vector to efficiently inoculate infectious virus particles to a new healthy plant. e Internal means that the virus enters the inner body of its vector, passing through cellular barriers. External means that the virus binds the cuticle of the vector and never passes through cellular barriers. f A helper component (HC) is involved in cases where the virus particles do not directly recognize vectors, acting as a molecular bridge between the two.
Because semipersistent viruses are also lost upon vector moulting, their association with the vector was also proposed to be external, likely in the stylets, though a possible location ‘upstream’, on the cuticle lining the anterior gut of the insect, was also proposed in some cases. In sharp contrast, many persistent viruses were observed within the vector body by electron microscopy, in various organs and tissues, indicating an internal association with the vectors. Such viruses were shown to pass through the gut epithelium into the hemolymph and join the salivary glands to be ejected together with saliva (Figure 1).
Eliminating symbiotic bacteria, and Vector Transmission of Plant Viruses thus symbionin, by antibiotic treatments significantly reduced the aphid efficiency as a vector. Consistently, direct evidence of a physical interaction between symbionin and luteovirus particles has been detected in several viral species, and virus mutants deficient in symbionin binding are poorly transmitted. Two hypotheses can explain the positive action of symbionin and are still debated, since no direct proof could be experimentally obtained: (1) it exhibits protective properties, masking the virus to the immune system and maintaining its integrity during transfer through the hostile hemolymph environment, or (2) its putative chaperon activity ensures correct folding facilitating transfer into the salivary glands.