By Moselio Schaechter
The table Encyclopedia of Microbiology goals to supply a cheap and prepared entry to a wide number of microbiological issues inside of one set of covers. this useful desk-top reference brings jointly an exceptional selection of paintings via the pinnacle scientists within the box. masking issues starting from the fundamental technological know-how of microbiology to the present ''hot'' subject matters within the box. * presents a huge, simply obtainable point of view on quite a lot of microbiological issues * A synthesis of the broadest issues from the excellent and multi-volumed Encyclopedia of Microbiology, moment version * important source in getting ready for lectures, writing experiences, or drafting furnish purposes
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The transporters described previously are grouped on the basis of evolutionary relatedness as a distinct transport family. Designated as the type IV secretion family, this classification distinguishes these transporters from other conserved bacterial protein targeting mechanisms that have been identified in bacteria. Although this is a functionally diverse family, the unifying theme of the type IV transporters is that each system has evolved by adapting an ancestral DNA conjugation apparatus or a part of this apparatus for the novel purpose of exporting DNA or proteins that function as virulence factors.
Mutations in these genes are pleiotropic, suggesting that ␤-1,2 glucan synthesis is important for the overall physiology of A. tumefaciens. Periplasmic ␤-1,2 glucan plays a role in equalizing the osmotic pressure between the inside and outside of the cell. It has been proposed that loss of this form of glucan may indirectly disrupt virulence by reducing the activity or function of cell surface proteins. Interestingly, chv mutants accumulate low levels of VirB10, one of the proposed components of the T-complex transport system (see Section V), suggesting that ␤-1,2 glucan might influence T-DNA export across the bacterial envelope by contributing to transporter assembly.
B. The role of VirE2 SSB in T-DNA transfer The virE2 gene codes for a single-stranded DNAbinding protein that binds cooperatively to singlestranded DNA (ssDNA). qxd 10/9/03 6:44 PM Page 17 agrobacterium and plant cell transformation ssDNA in vitro and that it binds T-DNA in A. tumefaciens. By analogy to other ssDNA-binding proteins (SSBs) that play important roles in DNA replication, VirE2 was proposed to participate in the T-DNA processing reaction by binding to the liberated T-strand and preventing it from reannealing to its complementary strand on the Ti plasmid.