By Graham T. Smith (auth.)
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Extra resources for CNC Machining Technology
If the slide movements are compared with an openloop system, then the whole action seems to be much more "controlled" giving a feeling of a higher degree of precision to the system. One problem associated with this indirect feedback control system, is that it is prone to suffer from "torque effects". These effects are a result of minute twisting of the ballscrew as heavy cuts are taken and this problem cannot be monitored - and hence controlled - by the comparator, thus a small error can occur in dimensional accuracy of the part.
34a) As its name implies, this method produces programmed points connected by straight lines, whether this distance is close or far ·apart. Motion can be achieved in any number of axes simultaneously. As an example of this, if we consider a machining centre's axes configuration, it can produce linear interpolation on the X, Y and Z axes for spatial point movement and Band C for rotating motions. Thus, on a 5-axes machine tool it would be incrementing feeds at differing rates to allow for contour machining to be undertaken.
Digital Measuring Systems A digital device can be either of linear or rotary configuration, with two main principles used: photo-electrical systems inductive scanning methods It is worth mentioning that inductive scanning techniques are not used on CNC machine tools, because they have a relatively large resolution which excludes them from the precision applications of this nature. lBi FR NGE PATTERN. Fig. 37. The principle of optical measurement based upon Moire fringes. By way of introducing digital systems, the photo-electric slideway positioning technique will be reviewed initially, using a lamp or fibre optic unit together with photocells and some form of grating, and then some other methods will be briefly considered.