By Debra A. Reid, Evan P. Bennett
The participants stroll readers via a century and a half African American agricultural background, from the strivings of black farm proprietors within the quick post-emancipation interval to the efforts of up to date black farm proprietors to obtain justice during the courts for many years of discrimination by means of the U.S division of Agriculture. They display that regardless of huge, immense stumbling blocks, via 1920 1 / 4 of African American farm households owned their land, and reveal that farm possession used to be now not easily a departure element for black migrants looking a greater lifestyles yet a center part of the African American experience.
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Extra info for Beyond Forty Acres and a Mule: African American Landowning Families Since Reconstruction
6. For a new study of contests over land between Native Americans, white Americans and African Americans in Oklahoma, see David A. Chang, The Color of the Land: Race, Nation, and the Politics of Landownership in Oklahoma, 1832–1929 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010); for an article that discusses landownership among black people in the Midwest, see Debra A. Reid, “‘The Whitest of Occupations’? African Americans in the Rural Midwest, 1940–2010,” in J. L. , The Rural Midwest since World War II (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, forthcoming).
Penningroth, The Claims of Kinfolk: African American Property and Community in the Nineteenth-Century South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003); Melvin Patrick Ely, Israel on the Appomattox: A Southern Experiment in Black Freedom from the 1790s through the Civil War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004). 22. Evan Bennett, personal communication to the author, July 15, 2010; e-mail from Evan Bennett to the author, August 11, 2010. 23. Thad Sitton and James H. Conrad, Freedom Colonies: Independent Black Texans in the Time of Jim Crow (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005), 7; Dianne Swann-Wright, A Way Out of No Way: Claiming Family and Freedom in the New South (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002).
C. Carter photograph and caption, McCormick-International Harvester Collection, Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison. 20. 4 percent of black farmers in Florida owned land. Du Bois, “The Negro Farmer,” 259. I Historiography and Philosophy This page intentionally left blank 1 The Jim Crow Section of Agricultural History Adrienne Petty When news of Shirley Sherrod’s forced resignation broke, I was writing this essay, which relates to the underlying point of the speech that propelled her into the national spotlight.