By Charles E. Leiserson
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More on VDM specifications may be found in [ 1201. Z specifications are built up of schemas, which are a structured description of both the static and dynamic features of a process. The static features of a process are its inputs, outputs, and the function prototype of any operations that the process needs to carry out, which are represented as declarations. The dynamic features of a process are represented by preconditions and postconditions, using the operations of elementary set theory as well as input and output operators.
Since that time, a staggering number of papers on ANNs have been published; see the journal IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks for hrther reading. In common with other inductive learning algorithms, ANNs learn by repeatedly observing a set of input-output pairings, and developing an Sofiai-e Engineering and ArfiJicialIntelligence 33 internal representation of the underlying function. The internal representation used by ANNs is a pattern of connection weights. Each link between two nodes in an ANN has an associated weight, which is altered by the learning algorithm of the ANN.
A component library is a collection of software components that have been designed and certified for reuse. In using a component library, the starting point is to develop a specification for a component that is to be inserted into a program. Next, 28 Computational Intelligence in Software Quality Assurance a set of candidate components must be identified from the library, and each candidate must be evaluated for its suitability. Ultimately, one candidate is selected as being the best. Assuming that this candidate is reasonably close to the desired specification (otherwise the component will just be written from scratch), it will be modified as needed and then integrated into the program.