Fossil Fuel Power Plant Steam Turbine ByPass System

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Protective systems should be provided to trip the boiler when HP bypass or LP bypass valves fail to open and when insufficient cooling steam flow passes through the superheater or reheater. The European Boiler codes require variable pressure safety valves on the reheater outlet and omission of the safety valves on the reheater inlet. 34 in the Americas and DIN 3840 (German) in Europe. The first takes the “cookbook approach” by providing easy-to-use tables for determining the required wall thicknesses.

All valves in the bypass system are usually equipped with a control system, power unit, and actuators that permit operating valves of any size full stroke in two seconds or less. The following list highlights some particular advantages of correctly sized and designed bypass valves: a) Cold start For the boiler, especially in supercritical units, the bypass system allows enhanced operation of the furnace, primary and secondary superheaters, flash tank, and main and reheater steam lines in the early steam water cycle.

The bypass valve position indexed by the steam pressure is indicative of this steam flow. For 40-percent bypass systems and larger, an HP bypass steam flow measurement may be needed for the control strategy that regulates the boiler’s feedwater demand. If steam flow is measured by the turbine’s first stage pressure (steam flow index), then an HP bypass flow nozzle is required to measure the bypass steam flow, or a characterized bypass valve position indication may be used. If steam flow is measured before the main steam stop valve, then an HP bypass flow nozzle is not required.

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