By Steven Liang, Albert J. Shih
This publication presents readers with the elemental, analytical, and quantitative wisdom of machining method making plans and optimization according to complex and functional figuring out of equipment, mechanics, accuracy, dynamics, tracking thoughts, and regulate thoughts that they should figuring out machining and laptop instruments. it truly is written for first-year graduate scholars in mechanical engineering, and can be applicable to be used as a reference publication via training engineers. It covers subject matters resembling unmarried and a number of aspect slicing methods; grinding approaches; laptop instrument parts, accuracy, and metrology; shear rigidity in slicing, slicing temperature and thermal research, and desktop instrument chatter. the second one element of the booklet is dedicated to “Non-Traditional Machining,” the place readers can locate chapters on electric discharge machining, electrochemical machining, laser and electron beam machining, and biomedical machining. Examples of sensible difficulties that engineers are inclined to face within the box are incorporated, besides suggestions and factors that foster a didactic studying event.
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In general, the following guidelines can be used for the selection of a grinding wheel: choose a hard-grade wheel for soft materials to delay wear and a soft-grade wheel for hard materials to facilitate self-sharpening; choose a large grit (hard wheel) for soft and ductile materials and a small grit (soft wheel) for hard and brittle materials; and choose a small grit for a good finish and a large grit for a maximum metal removal rate. In addition to grain and bonding properties, grinding conditions also play an important part in determining whether a wheel will behave hard or soft.
14) Vo = aw ac, max lc , 4 where aw is the average width of the chip and ac , max is the maximum undeformed chip thickness, and they can be related by a grain aspect ratio rg as a rg = w . 16) where vt is the surface speed of the wheel and C g is the number of actively cutting grains per unit area on the wheel surface. 17) 10 π d g 10d g2 4 where d g is the average grit diameter which is often agreed upon as 60 % of the wire spacing that determines the grit size. For example, a 120 grit passes through a 1/120 in.
These processes are similar to cylindrical turning, and grinding attachments are available that allow these operations to be performed on an engine lathe. In addition to external surfaces, internal surfaces can also be ground based on similar principles. Generally speaking, there are two types of cylindrical grinding, namely, traverse and plunge. 4a and b show the respective configurations. 22) where f is the feed per work revolution and nw is the work rotational speed in rpm. The MRR is Z w = π a p Dw vtrav .