An Introduction to Electrical Instrumentation and by B.A. Gregory

By B.A. Gregory

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Electrical Instrumentation and Measurement Systems: A guide to the use, selection, and limitations of electrical instruments and measurement systems

Example text

Iv) Calculation error The effects of this form of error are likely in most cases to be negligible if sufficient calculating power is used, for example, an 8 or 10-digit calculator generally makes this form of error insignificant in comparison with other errors. However, such an assumption cannot be justified if very precise measurements are being made. 0137 per cent has been introduced. 355 per cent has occurred! (v) Environmental effects All materials, and hence electrical components, are affected to some extent by changes in the environment in which they are operating.

Note: the thickness of the shield required in both (a) and (b) will be a function of INTRODUCTION 51 (c) Lead twisting. By arranging equipment so that the coupling between the magnetic field source and the signal carrying connections is either cancelled out, or kept to a minimum. The former requirement may be met by ensuring that the two leads connecting a source to an instrument follow an identical path, and such an arrangement is greatly assisted by twisting the two leads together. The latter requirement can only be fulfilled by ensuring that the signal carrying conductors are remote from any source of magnetic flux.

38 AN INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION Current division Since most direct-acting pointer instruments have a deflection that is proportional to some function of current, to increase the range of currents that can be measured, a current division circuit that shunts some of the current around the instrument is required. 22. 23) therefore Rs = ImRf!.!. 1001 n. Voltage division The voltage across the meter, in the above section, corresponding to full scale deflection, is 1 mA x 100 n or 100mV.

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