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This article integrates microscopy with plant mobile and molecular biology and is an up-to-date revision of the preferred atlas of micrographs first released in 1975. It contains over four hundred micrographs and four pages of full-color plates.
Additional resources for An embedded interactive monitoring system for PV-Diesel hybrid plants in rural areas
2 Tools Figure 1-8 illustrates tools and methodology to develop the objectives of this work. The methodology and tools in order to carry out this thesis are described as following: • PV-diesel hybrid system: It is used to implement the interactive monitoring website. The hybrid system is installed including PV arrays, generator, battery, Sunny Boy inverter, Sunny Island (battery’s inverter), and load. The hybrid system is used to supply electricity to a load simulating for remote areas’ load. • Interactive Monitoring Website: It is the core of work.
65 ⋅ 10-5 eV/K] T = absolute temperature [K] The quantity I 0 defines the so-called dark- or saturation current of a diode. It plays a very large role of the performance of a solar cell. 9 V for amorphous cells. Power of a solar cell is the product of current and voltage (I-V) and can be described in a curve as shown in Figure 2-9. Although the current has its maximum at the shortcircuit point, the voltage is zero and thus the power is also zero. The situation for current and voltage is reversed at the open-circuit point, so again the power here is zero.
Lifetime The lifetime of the battery should be long, especially in order to keep the specific kWh-cost and the installation cost low, particularly in remote areas. - Overall efficiency The overall efficiency (ηΣ) is derived from charge or columbic efficiency (ηI) and voltage efficiency (ηV): ηΣ = ηI ⋅ ηV (2-11) 26 Chapter 2: PV-Diesel hybrid system technology The columbic efficiency is usually measured at a constant discharge rate referring to the amount of charge able to be recalled from the battery (QD) relative to the amount put in during charging (QC).