By Lucinda L. Veeck, Nikica Zaninovic
If you happen to had a accountable approach for selecting the healthiest and so much achievable conceptus from a cohort of growing to be preembryos, changing greater than a unmarried one so that it will in achieving sturdy being pregnant charges will be moot. someday within the not-so-distant destiny, this can be a truth. Taking a step in the direction of that destiny, An Atlas of Human Blastocysts vividly illustrates the common and extraordinary morphology of mammalian blastocysts. The atlas demonstrates that prolonged tradition of blastocysts is now a possibility within the laboratory and issues us towards the day whilst it is going to be attainable to choose from a few fit hatched blastocysts.
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Extra resources for An atlas of human blastocysts
The reasons and mechanisms underlying this biphasic metabolism are described in detail below. Along with changes in carbohydrate utilization, the preimplantation embryo also undergoes changes in its requirements for amino acids8,9. Prior to compaction, embryo development is highest in the presence of alanine, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine and taurine10, while after compaction the embryo’s requirements for amino acids increase, and development and differentiation are supported by a wider array of amino acids8.
Payne D, Flaherty SP, Barry MF, Matthews CD. Preliminary observations on polar body extrusion and pronuclear formation in human oocytes using time-lapse video cinematography. Hum Reprod 1997; 12:532–41 46. Almeida PA, Bolton VN. Immaturity and chromosomal abnormalities in oocytes that fail to develop pronuclei following insemination in vitro. Hum Reprod 1993; 8:229–32 47. Nagy ZP, Cecile J, Liu J, Loccufier A, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem A. Pregnancy and birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of in vitro matured germinal-vesicle stage oocytes: case report.
These authors recommended that, if grading scores are high in conjunction with optimal clinical parameters, fewer preembryos should be transferred to offset high multiple pregnancy rates. A three-grade scoring system was evaluated by Erenus and associates in 199187. Grade 1 preembryos represented those with equal-sized blastomeres and no fragmentation, grade 2 included preembryos with unequal-sized blastomeres and grade 3 included preembryos associated with cytoplasmic fragments. In cycles where the best preembryo transferred was grade 1, 22% achieved clinical pregnancy.