American Practical Navigator by N. Bowditch

By N. Bowditch

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The standard parallel, where the cone is tangent to the earth, appears as the arc of a circle with its center at the apex of the cone. The other parallels are concentric circles. The distance along any meridian between consecutive parallels is in correct relation to the distance on the earth, and, therefore, can be derived mathematically. The pole is represented by a circle (Figure 312b). The scale is correct along any meridian and along the standard parallel. All other parallels are too great in length, with the error increasing with increased distance from the standard parallel.

The tangent great circle is the fictitious equator. Ninety degrees from it are two fictitious poles. A group of great circles through these poles and perpendicular to the tangent great circle are the fictitious meridians, while a series of circles parallel to the plane of the tangent great circle form the fictitious parallels. The actual meridians and parallels appear as curved lines. A straight line on the transverse or oblique Mercator projection makes the same angle with all fictitious meridians, but not with the terrestrial meridians.

The ways of expressing the scale of a chart are readily interchangeable. 39 inches. If the natural scale of a chart is 1:80,000, one inch of the chart represents 80,000 inches of the earth, or a little more than a mile. 097. 1) miles to an inch. 9) inch to a mile. 39) = 1:4,374,803. A chart covering a relatively large area is called a small-scale chart and one covering a relatively small area is called a large-scale chart. Since the terms are relative, there is no sharp division between the two.

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