By Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo
Among 1940 and 1945, millions of African americans migrated from the South to the East Bay quarter of northern California looking for the social and financial mobility that used to be linked to the region's increasing safety and its attractiveness for larger racial tolerance. Drawing on fifty oral interviews with migrants in addition to on archival and different written files, Abiding braveness examines the studies of the African American girls who migrated west and outfitted groups there.Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo vividly indicates how ladies made the transition from southern household and box paintings to jobs in an commercial, wartime economic system. even as, they have been suffering to maintain their households jointly, setting up new families, and growing community-sustaining networks and associations. whereas white ladies shouldered the double burden of salary hard work and housekeeping, black girls confronted even better demanding situations: discovering homes and faculties, finding church buildings and clinical prone, and contending with racism. through concentrating on girls, Lemke-Santangelo presents new views on the place and the way social swap happens and the way neighborhood is validated and maintained.
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Extra info for Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community
ISBN 0-8078-2256-6 (cloth: alk. paper). : alk. paper) 1. Afro-American womenCaliforniaSan Francisco Bay AreaSocial conditions. 2. Afro-AmericansCaliforniaSan Francisco Bay AreaMigrationsHistory20th century. 3. Rural-urban migrationCaliforniaSan Francisco Bay AreaHistory20th century. 4. )Social conditions. I. Title. 4'600496073dc20CIP Page v For my mother and father Page vii Contents Acknowledgments xi Introduction 1 1 It Was Just Like Living in Two Worlds. Growing Up in the Jim Crow South, 1910-1940.
Rural areas, which often lacked formal systems of separation, had elaborate behavioral codes enforced by tradition. 2 Whether segregation's rules were of urban or rural origin, they were reinforced with racial violence. Pauli Murray, a nonmigrant lawyer and activist, recalled how these rules had to be learned and negotiated if one was to survive: "learning about race did not for the most part come in terrifying shocks although there were those tooespecially news of lynchings, which, frequently unreported in the newspapers[,] traveled by word of mouth.
Indeed, white people were even more thoroughly excluded from the black world than blacks were from the white world; black people worked for whites in the most intimate of settings and daily witnessed actions that contradicted white claims of superiority. For all their separateness, white and black worlds were inextricably entwined in an uneasy relationship, one in which the black community, although defined by whites as marginal, claimed its own center; one in which whites could alternately feel powerful and diminished; and one where the daily resistance of ordinary black citizens existed alongside the everyday rhythms of life, which occurred not in reaction to white supremacy but in the context of human needs and desires.